Most of us who work in the library bays at Smith Warehouse have not set foot on campus since March 20. One of our colleagues, however, has been there 24/7, keeping watch over the place. Below is an interview with this Bay 10 mainstay, conducted just before working from home began. Holiday Tree, we miss you!
CM: What is your role here at Duke? HT: I play the very important role of seasonal décor for Technical Services. I really love my job. You talk to most “artificial” trees out there, and they’ll tell you they’re stuck in an attic 10.5-11 months out of the year. Not me. I’m on display year round, bringing continued joy to all the residents and visitors of Bays 9 and 10.
CM: What is your favorite part of working at Duke? HT: It’s got to be the people. I can always count on Antha Marshall (and her candy bowl) when I need a pick me up. Will Hanley always makes me look dashing in his photos. I’m also very close with Leeda Adkins. She leads the team of folks who change out my decorations each season. I’ve witnessed some very creative problem solving when it comes to tree toppers. And, obviously, Squirrel and I are inseparable.
CM: Do you have a favorite season? HT: That’s a tough one. I might have to say summer. Not a lot of conifers can say they’ve seen the beach. Oh, to be clear, I haven’t either, but I really think I have a good sense of what it’s like based on my decorations. I’ve often contemplated what SPF I would need.
CM: Is there anything else you would like to say to our readers? HT: I bleed blue, but I live green! Please recycle.
From the publisher: “Representations of older transgender people are nearly absent from our culture and those that do exist are often one-dimensional. For over five years, photographer Jess T. Dugan and social worker Vanessa Fabbre traveled throughout the United States creating To Survive on this Shore: Photographs and Interviews with Transgender and Gender Non-Conforming Older Adults. Seeking subjects whose lived experiences exist within the complex intersections of gender identity, age, race, ethnicity, sexuality, socioeconomic class, and geographic location, they traveled from coast to coast, to big cities and small towns, documenting the life stories of this important but largely underrepresented group of older adults. The featured individuals have a wide variety of life narratives spanning the last ninety years, offering an important historical record of transgender experience and activism in the United States.”
From the publisher: “For more than 30 years, New York-based photographer and painter Mariette Pathy Allen has been documenting transgender culture worldwide…[In] TransCuba, Allen focuses on the transgender community of Cuba, especially its growing visibility and acceptance in a country whose government is transitioning into a more relaxed model of communism under Raúl Castro’s presidency. This publication therefore records a cultural watershed within Cuba.”
From the publisher: “[Seliger’s] portraits of trans people on Christopher Street combined with their moving and deeply personal stories remind us of our need for sanctuary, for a space to call our own. Their presence challenges us to redefine home, community, and ownership. Their presence challenges us to stop and reflect. No longer will we remain idle and pass by them in fear and prejudice. We will stand with them, recognize them, and see them. These are our streets, and these are our people.”
From the publisher: “Female strives to capture transgender women without artificial studio lighting or the irrelevance of color. While trans people are often sensationalized in the media, Pilar Vergara set out to quietly capture their individuality through intimate portraits.”
From the publisher: “American Boys by photographer Soraya Zaman is a bold and intuitive representation of the transmasculine community from big cities to small towns across the USA. For three years, Zaman traveled to 21 states to photograph and interviewed 29 transmasculine individuals aged 18 to 35 in their hometowns at distinct stages of their transition. Zaman’s sincere and tender portraits and accompanying essays candidly capture their grace and humanity providing viewers with a snapshot into their lives, personality, honesty and journeys across the transmasculine spectrum.”
Finally, we would like to highlight a photobook by Duke alumni, Mikael Owunna.
From the creator: “I found photography as my voice…and in 2013 I began Limitless Africans. Over the course of four years, I would travel to ten different countries across North America and Europe to document, for the first time, the LGBTQ African immigrant experience. Shooting and interviewing over 50 LGBTQ African immigrants, I found that every one had experienced a similar sense of rejection on all sides. This body of work is a collaborative response between me and my community, to re-define what it means to be an immigrant, African and queer in North America and Europe at this time. To confront, with our self-love and stories, the oppressive narratives that say we should not exist. We are Limitless.”
This list below is just a start. There are many resources to be found, in Duke University Libraries and beyond, to educate, inspire, and call to action. Please feel free to email me (email@example.com) with any additional resources you find helpful, and I will add them to the list.
May 29th will mark the last day of Rosalyn Raeford’s forty-three-year career at the Duke University Libraries (DUL). Ros is the Head of the Resource Description Department. The department is responsible for creating and stewarding the metadata that make discovery of library resources possible, as well as shelf preparation of physical materials. When Ros joined the Duke library staff in the late 1970s automation of library cataloging existed, but it was deep in the background. Its tangible output was the card catalog, local access points were added manually in aid of user discovery and access. As time and Ros’s career went on, the interplay between the technological and the manual trended more and more toward automation. Yet, a lot of manual work was still involved in cataloging, as catalogers worked on printouts that were then converted to computer format through data input. During these years of change, Ros was there not only to witness, but to shape the trajectory of DUL’s approach to resource description.
Ros began her career as a clerk-typist responsible for typing local access points, such as call numbers, on printed cards. This regularly entailed typing unique access points per title on multiple cards. Though critical to the user experience, it was not the most enlivening work. Ros always found ways to make it fun, for herself and her colleagues.
Next for Ros was working with the Demand Cataloging team. This group managed a huge backlog of books by boxing them for storage, creating a paper trail on boxes and on catalog cards, and retrieving titles for cataloging when library users requested (or demanded) a title. Think a very low-tech Library Service Center. Ros really began enjoying her job when she became a copy cataloger, working directly with materials to assign call numbers, and then moving onto subject heading work. Ros remembers that the more complicated an item was, the more she enjoyed it.
About eight years after Ros joined the library staff, at around the time computers first became part of cataloging, Ros became the supervisor of the Pre-Cataloging team. It was in supervisory work that she found her “true love.” This true love encompassed both people and process, and that is where the magic happened. Ros saw opportunities for workflow efficiencies that leveraged both available technology and the skills of her colleagues. An early efficiency that Ros envisioned and worked with colleagues to realize was automation of call number creation for copy cataloging. Cataloging work was done exclusively in a DOS environment with command prompts. Another efficiency that Ros conceived of was cataloging in a Windows environment. She and a colleague designed a Windows-based system that a third colleague programmed. Thus, the Cat Editor was born.
Automation, efficiency, and process saved time and created an environment that freed up resources to tackle bigger things. Remember that the more complicated something was, the more Ros enjoyed it? Ros has led many large projects over the years, but the project to reclass DUL’s collection from the Dewey Decimal Classification system to the Library of Congress (LC) Classification system stands out because it enabled efficiency on a massive scale. Until late 2004, DUL was one of a very small number of large academic libraries that used Dewey. At various times over the years, the library had looked at switching to LC Classification. Arguments for the benefits of switching were never compelling enough to effect the change. Switching to LC was always deemed too expensive, too undoable. Ros made it happen! She analyzed and synthesized in-house cataloging statistics to show that upwards of 85% of catalog records had LC class numbers. Ros showed that by using LC classification, it would be possible to move the bulk of materials more quickly through the cataloging workflow and into the hands of library users.
The LC Reclass Project was a multi-year project that began in 2004 and transformed DUL’s collection and how we catalog. Once LC classification was in place, Ros was able to lead further process changes, namely shelf-ready processing of new monograph titles and working with vendors to provide cataloging when it was not feasible to do in house. A philosophical change also ensued that led the Resource Description Department to its current approach toward cataloging: follow national standards and avoid local practices. Certainly, elements of this approach were already there prior to LC reclass, but the project pushed us further in that direction.
Now cataloging is on the brink of a fundamental shift in the creation and use of metadata to linked data. Ros will not be here to lead us through this sea-change, but her approach to people and process will continue to inform how we embrace and manage it. We will thrive, and library users will benefit as a result. Ros said that in her first days at Duke, she felt smarter just being here. Well, DUL and Duke are smarter, too, because Ros was here. (Recommended reading: Dennis Christman’s January 31, 2020 post titled A Linked Data Primer.)
Now for a parting gift from Ros, here are some of thoughts in her own words.
On joining the library and what stood out to her at the time:
“The first few days that I was there I remember walking out on campus and just being awestruck. I remember just this really warm feeling of just being on Duke’s campus. … I felt smarter just being there.”
On being a manager:
“Being a manager was like the best thing that could have happened to me. And, being a manager in a process-oriented environment. It’s my ideal thing because it was a breeding ground for creativity. There was no limit to what you could do.”
On automation and its opportunities:
I was fascinated about how to make things more efficient and what could be automated. … We were automating and most people hadn’t even thought about it.”
On having fun at work:
“I love planning and problem-solving. And I think that for me that was what the LC reclass project was. The fact that so many people had looked at doing it and it got abandoned at least four times. … I don’t know how you describe it. It was almost like a competition. Like when I played basketball; it was like sports. I’m competitive. I was like, ‘okay this can be done.’”
On linked data and the future of cataloging:
“Something major is about to happen. Another major shift in how we think about metadata, another major shift in how we think about discovery.”
“If you can give catalogers something else to embrace that taps into their intellectual value, that taps into their skill set regardless of how those skills play out, I think they will embrace it.”
My first two blog posts of this three-part series focused on license organization, digitization, file-naming schemas, and controlled vocabularies. In this final blog post, I will discuss the behind-the-scenes work that goes into the transition from one library services platform to another with regards to electronic resources.
I am part of the FOLIO Electronic Resource Management (ERM) Implementation team whose purpose is to guide the transition of electronic resources into FOLIO for DUL and the Professional School libraries. Our team is responsible for customizing the ERM apps within FOLIO, such as Licenses and Organizations, that Duke will be implementing in summer 2020. We are currently working on creating the underlying metadata schemas and controlled vocabularies that essentially build the “frame” for implementing the FOLIO ERM. One of the most helpful tools I’ve found for this part of my internship is the Data Dictionary from the Digital Library Federation’s Electronic Resource Management Initiative (ERMI) Report. This document is a great reference for metadata librarians and other technical services professionals whose work requires the use of controlled vocabularies and metadata schemas.
To help put this in perspective for those who don’t work in technical services, we are essentially choosing the customizable fields and terms that are going to display within the FOLIO interface (also known as FOLIO’s frontend). Because FOLIO is highly customizable and not strictly an out-of-the-box product, we are able to select many of the specific data fields and terms that uniquely apply to our needs. Let’s look at the current state of one of FOLIO’s ERM apps, Licenses. When a DUL ERM user logs into FOLIO to add a new license into the platform, we use the FOLIO Licenses app. Here’s an example of this app’s current interface in FOLIO (see below).
The Licenses app interface
A portion of the Terms information fields
The ERM team is currently working on defining the fields we want displayed in this interface, the terms we will use to populate these fields, and any additional information we think will be pertinent in the uploading of our electronic licenses into FOLIO.
While some of you may have seen me in Smith Warehouse in our pre-quarantine days running between our licensing documentation filing cabinets and the printer like a mad woman, there is much more to my internship than scanning and filing. I am fortunate to work with a truly great group of library and information science professionals at DUL who have kindly allowed me to dip my toes into the world of technical services and electronic resources management. Having come from a museum collections background before beginning library school, I am thankful I can directly apply my knowledge in information management and retrieval to DUL’s FOLIO transition.
My last blog post focused on the basics of licensing organization and digitization in preparation for DUL’s transition to the FOLIO library services platform. This week’s post, the second in a three-part series, will focus on creating standardized file names using controlled vocabulary.
File-Naming Schema & Controlled Vocabulary
Another aspect of my digital licensing document organization is the creation of consistent terms used to name our electronic files. By creating a consistent way of naming our electronic licenses, it’s much easier to navigate our repository of electronic files (SharePoint) and locate documents. Most of our documents can be grouped into several categories: licenses, communications, and purchase orders. Within these categories, I’ve created a picklist of terms that can be applied for each document. This list is essentially a controlled vocabulary or “data dictionary” (see below).
Agreement between licensor and licensee
AKA conditions of use
Authorization or Agreement
Used in consortial agreements
A legal change to a previous license
A legal change to a previous license
AKA product order, order, etc.
Service Change Order
Akin to addendum for purchase orders
Includes e-mails, faxes, letters
List of packaged titles
In addition to this controlled vocabulary, I’ve also created a consistent file-naming structure. This structure allows us to quickly sort files chronologically and easily find specific documents (see below).
Licensor _ Document Type _ Signed date (YYYMMDD) __ Product Name.pdf
We begin our file names with the licensor’s name, which allows us to easily identify to whom this document pertains. Second, the document type field (e.g. license, addendum, etc.) allows us to sort lists of documents by their type. Third, the inclusion of the document’s sign date in ISO date format allows for more accurate sorting of documents by date. And fourth, the product name field shows us which product is described in the document (e.g. specific journal name, database, etc.). To put this in context, let’s say I’ve been asked to find the most recent addendum that DUL signed with Bloomsbury Publishing with regards to their Drama Online database. Here’s how I would find that file:
Navigate to the “Bloomsbury Publishing” folder in SharePoint
Click on the “Licenses” subfolder
Sort the files within the “Licenses” subfolder alphabetically
Locate for the most recent addendum file (see below)
List of licensing documents for Bloomsbury Publishing in SharePoint
As you may have noticed, a consistent file-naming structure is immensely helpful when you’re trying to locate a single file located within a folder containing many years’ worth of licenses, addenda, and amendments.
Check out my final blog post of this three-part series next week that will discuss my role in DUL’s transition to the FOLIO library services platform.
As the 2020 Continuing Resource Acquisitions Intern, the goal of my work is to make the Duke University Libraries (DUL) electronic resources licensing transition from SharePoint to FOLIO as painless as possible. Duke University Libraries, as well as the Professional School libraries, is in the process of adopting FOLIO as its new library services platform. As one of the first institutions of higher education in the U.S. to implement FOLIO, Duke is in a unique position to create a customized product that meets our needs in addition to providing an example for other libraries. By reviewing and digitizing our current and historical licenses, I can contribute not only to the transition of these documents into FOLIO but also to the metadata and structure of the FOLIO platform itself.
This blog post is the first in a three-part series that highlights my internship in the Continuing Resource Acquisitions department. Get ready to learn about licensing organization and digitization!
Licensing Digitization & Organization
The bulk of my work is the organization and digitization of DUL’s licensing documents. All licenses associated with DUL’s electronic resources are currently filed in two places: physical documents in filing cabinets in Smith Warehouse and electronic documents in SharePoint.
Previous interns have also worked on the organization of these documents, so the goal of my work is to now create consistency between both sets of documents – physical and digital. For instance, if a digital version of a database license were to accidentally get deleted, we would have the physical copy as a back-up. While most of our physical licensing documents are filed and organized well, our electronic documents in SharePoint need some love. Some things I must keep in mind while digitizing licensing documents for the eventual transfer of them into FOLIO is to make sure the digitized files are stable and searchable. Therefore, I have opted to use PDFs as the file type for our licensing documents. One of the main reasons for making this decision is the ability for Adobe Acrobat to perform optical character recognition (OCR) on the documents, making them keyword searchable. The ability to quickly search a licensing document for specific licensing language is critical for the ERM team. Searchability comes in handy when negotiating specific terms of licenses with publishers and vendors, such as authorized users, interlibrary loan (ILL), and perpetual access.
Something I didn’t expect to become so well versed in while organizing our licensing documents is the convoluted nature of academic publishing histories. For example, DUL may subscribe to an online database that was licensed with “Licensor A” years ago. However, “Licensor A,” a small publishing company, was acquired by “Licensor E,” a larger publishing company, which means the product now has a new licensor. You’re probably wondering, “Why is this important?” Well, we file all our electronic product licenses by licensor. Therefore, we may end up having several licenses related to the same product scattered throughout folders because the product’s owner has changed over time. A good way to conceptualize this is to think about large publishing companies, such as Elsevier or ProQuest. DUL has many licenses for products that were once owned by smaller publishing companies at the time of purchase. However, these smaller companies no longer exist after being acquired by companies like Elsevier. Therefore, we may end up having two licenses for the same product – one license with the original licensor and another with the current licensor.
Because of this, I end up going down publishing history rabbit holes in order to determine who the legal owner of a product was at the time of signing the license agreement versus who the legal owner is today. Being relatively new to the field of academic publishing, I’ve found Library Technology Guides to be a godsend in navigating the labyrinthine-like history of academic publishers.
Check out my blog post next week on license file-naming schemas and controlled vocabulary to see how these efforts will help DUL’s transition from SharePoint to the FOLIO Electronic Resource Management (ERM) apps.
At the end of March, HathiTrust announced that one of the ways they are responding to the widespread closures of libraries is to launch their Emergency Temporary Access Service (ETAS) to allow the circulation of millions of digital copies of books now locked up in library stacks. Even those digital books that are still in copyright which under normal circumstances are not available. This is very exciting to those of us whose regular job duties include getting resources into the hands of patrons. Most of us in Technical Services have that mission at the core of our jobs, even though we do not work directly with patrons providing reference or instruction.
After HathiTrust outlined parameters of the ETAS with representatives from member institutions on April 2nd, 2020, an announcement went out to the Duke Community letting everyone know to look for the “Temporary Access” button on HathiTrust’s site, which gives us access to view one page at a time for in- copyright materials of which DUL holds a print copy.
Cory Lown and I quickly started communicating on how we could improve access for our patrons. Because the Hathi BibAPI is already in use for the Books & Media catalog for open access materials, we considered that avenue. Initially, there was not enough metadata available to us to reliably determine which digital books are available through ETAS. So, I started to strategize on how to add records to our Aleph ILS and communicated with our colleagues at UNC-Chapel Hill to determine if their method would work for us. The number of records that would need to be created, though, was high at 1.3 million. That much new access for our patrons is great, but developing the process to get records in, and plan for getting them back out later when ETAS ended, meant that loading records into Aleph was going to be very time consuming.
On April 8th, HathiTrust published an article on their website, “How to Add ETAS Records to Your Catalog” which discusses three ways to provide direct links to the digital surrogate of an institution’s holdings. After reading this article, investigating what our peers were doing, and searching for the information needed to succeed, I realized all of the methods described meant that we had to have access to the HathiFiles database, the Overlap Report for Duke, and authentication credentials so that patrons would be prompted to login with Shibboleth to prove they are Duke people.
I reached back out to Cory to discuss which of the three methods we should use; ultimately, we decided that a combination of two was best for Duke. So, Cory updated how we use the BibAPI to harvest data from a local store of the HathiFiles and Overlap Report to generate URLs that are embedded in records as they are displayed in the Books & Media Catalog.
So, as of April 17th, in addition to being able to search for materials directly in HathiTrust, as they had since April 2nd, patrons now see “View Online” links to the ETAS items directly in our catalog. This temporary access means that approximately 38% of our print holdings now have links to HathiTrust materials (this percentage includes the open access links that were available before making this change).
With teaching, learning, and research activities now having to be done remotely I expect we will continue to look for ways to help our users gain the most effective access we can manage under the circumstances.
Even as the Duke University Libraries remain closed, there is no shortage of library resources to be enjoyed remotely. We asked the Technical Services staff to share how they are using the libraries to make the most of their time at home. Here are some of their responses:
“My family has enjoyed Naxos Music Library. It has over 2.3 million tracks!”
(Natalie Sommerville, Team Lead, Monographic Original Cataloging)
“I’ve been playing mandolin for a few years now, and I like to check out music from the library to work on. I’m pretty slow, so these two should be able to tide me over for some time. Also, both of the Fantastic Beasts movies are on Swank Digital Campus!” (Dennis Christman, Metadata Transformation Librarian)
“I have an issue of one of my favorite manga at home. It’s volume no. 2 of ‘Yotsuba &!’ The series shows the zany antics of a young girl (about 5 years old, I think?) in Japan. It’s a slice-of-life comedy that always makes me laugh and puts me in a good mood. I brought the volume home in case I need help feeling joyful in these times.” https://find.library.duke.edu/catalog/DUKE005833895
(Will Hanley, Electronic Resources Management Specialist)
“I really needed a break from all of the terrible, frightening news, and I REALLY needed to laugh, so I decided to check out Swank Digital Campus. Swank has a pretty good selection of films in a number of different genres, and I thought this would be a good opportunity to catch up on some I’d always heard about, but had never seen. I decided upon ‘Bridget Jones’s Diary’ (I know, I can’t believe I never saw it either!), and really enjoyed it. I needed something lighthearted and fun and that fit the bill. I may check out ‘Crazy Rich Asians’, and I noticed Swank also has ‘Eat, Drink, Man, Woman’, which I saw years ago and really enjoyed.” (Ellen Maxwell, Library Original Cataloger for Monographic Resources)
“I am using Duke’s OverDrive (in conjunction with Durham Library’s – it’s great, you can combine access to both in the OverDrive Libby app) to find ebooks for leisure reading on my Kindle.
Birds of the World is a great database for those of us who have become amateur bird watchers while at home. We have a great view out of my living room window onto a bird feeder and watch the birds come and go all day. I even spent some time trying to learn to identify bird songs this weekend (not super successful on that one).” (Virginia Martin, Head – Continuing Resource Acquisitions)
“I have stacked on my dining room table around 20 books from DUL that I am using to write an historical article. It will be entitled, “Selling Virginia: promoting English emigration in the seventeenth century” and will be published inAdvertising and Society Quarterly.
I’ve taken photos of many of the images of promotion literature included in these illustrated texts (all public domain, of course.) They included broadsides, official documents, lottery headers, etc. Many people don’t realize how rich our collections are in older texts, and the value they provide.” (Beverly Dowdy, Coordinator – Government Documents Processing)
We have been thrust into strange and unsettling times. Due to events not of our choosing, we in the library are all working from home now. For some, working from home is something they’re used to as a part of their work routine. For others, like me, it’s a completely new experience. Here are some thoughts I’ve had during this first week:
Embrace new technology. A fortune I once got read “keep your mind open to new possibilities.” I am finding that is good advice for the current situation. Embrace opportunities to learn new technologies that will help you do your job. I am learning to use Zoom and Microsoft Teams and am having a great time with them, and I like seeing and interacting with my co-workers.
Take time to take care of yourself. During the day, take time to do things that are good for your soul and your body. Get out and walk or jog in the sunshine. Vitamin D is good for the immune system, and walking is great exercise. And while you’re at it, maybe give a wave or say a kind word (from a safe distance) to the neighbor you may have never spoken to, since they are home as well.
Don’t give in to fear. Try to stay positive, and let go of those things that you have no control of. I have found that I have had to limit my time on social media, because otherwise all the horrible news can lead to feelings of panic, which can keep me up at night. I am also trying to just be grateful. I am grateful to be working for the Duke Libraries, I am grateful to have the wonderful people I work with, and I am grateful, especially, for my family.
Hang in there folks, this too shall pass. We are all doing great work and learning new and wonderful things, both about each other and ourselves.