Zoomable Hi-Res Images: Hopping Aboard the OpenSeadragon Bandwagon

Our new W. Duke & Sons digital collection (released a month ago) stands as an important milestone for us: our first collection constructed in the (Hydra-based) Duke Digital Repository, which is built on a suite of community-built open source software. Among that software is a remarkable image viewer tool called OpenSeadragon. Its website describes it as:

“an open-source, web-based viewer for high-resolution zoomable images, implemented in pure Javascript, for desktop and mobile.”

OpenSeadragon viewer in action on W. Duke & Sons collection.
OpenSeadragon viewer in action on W. Duke & Sons collection.
OpenSeadragon zoomed in, W. Duke & Sons collection.
OpenSeadragon zoomed in, W. Duke & Sons collection.

In concert with tiled digital images (we use Pyramid TIFFs), an image server (IIPImage), and a standard image data model (IIIF: International Image Interoperability Framework), OpenSeadragon considerably elevates the experience of viewing our image collections online. Its greatest virtues include:

  • smooth, continuous zooming and panning for high-resolution images
  • open source, built on web standards
  • extensible and well-documented

We can’t wait to get to share more of our image collections in the new platform.

OpenSeadragon Examples Elsewhere

Arthur C. Clarke’s Third Law states, “Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic.” And looking at high-res images in OpenSeadragon feels pretty darn magical. Here are some of my favorite implementations from places that inspired us to use it:

  1. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Zooming in close on this van Gogh self-portrait gives you a means to inspect the intense brushstrokes and texture of the canvas in a way that you couldn’t otherwise experience, even by visiting the museum in-person.

    Self-Portrait with a Straw Hat (obverse: The Potato Peeler). Vincent van Gogh, 1887.
    Self-Portrait with a Straw Hat (obverse: The Potato Peeler). Vincent van Gogh, 1887.
  2. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers (Library of Congress). For instance, zoom to read in the July 21, 1871 issue of “The Sun” (New York City) about my great-great-grandfather George Aery’s conquest being crowned the Schuetzen King, sharpshooting champion, at a popular annual festival of marksmen.
    The sun. (New York [N.Y.]), 21 July 1871. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
    The sun. (New York [N.Y.]), 21 July 1871. Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress.
  3. Other GLAMs. See these other nice examples from The National Gallery of Art, The Smithsonian National Museum of American Museum, NYPL Digital Collections, and Digital Public Library of America (DPLA).

OpenSeadragon’s Microsoft Origins


The software began with a company called Sand Codex, founded in Princeton, NJ in 2003. By 2005, the company had moved to Seattle and changed its name to Seadragon Software. Microsoft acquired the company in 2006 and positioned Seadragon within Microsoft Live Labs.

In March 2007, Seadragon founder Blaise Agüera y Arcase gave a TED Talk where he showcased the power of continuous multi-resolution deep-zooming for applications built on Seadragon. In the months that followed, we held a well-attended staff event at Duke Libraries to watch the talk. There was a lot of ooh-ing and aah-ing. Indeed, it looked like magic. But while it did foretell a real future for our image collections, at the time it felt unattainable and impractical for our needs. It was a Microsoft thing. It required special software to view. It wasn’t going to happen here, not when we were making a commitment to move away from proprietary platforms and plugins.

Sometime in 2008, Microsoft developed a more open Javascript-based version of Seadragon called Seadragon Ajax, and by 2009 had shared it as open-source software via a New BSD license.  That curtailed many barriers for use, however it still required a Microsoft server-side framework and Microsoft AJAX library.  So in the years since, the software has been re-engineered to be truly open, framework-agnostic, and has thus been rebranded as OpenSeadragon. Having a technology that’s this advanced–and so useful–be so open has been an incredible boon to cultural heritage institutions and, by extension, to the patrons we serve.


OpenSeadragon’s documentation is thorough, so that helped us get up and running quickly with adding and customizing features. W. Duke & Sons cards were scanned front & back, and the albums are paginated, so we knew we had to support navigation within multi-image items. These are the key features involved:


Some aspects of the interface weren’t quite as we needed them to be out-of-the-box, so we added and customized a few features.

  • Custom Button Binding. Created our own navigation menu to match our site’s more modern aesthetic.
  • Page Indicator / Jump to Page. Developed a page indicator and direct-input page jump box using the OpenSeadragon API
  • Styling. Revised the look & feel with additional CSS & Javascript.

Future Directions: Page-Turning & IIIF

OpenSeadragon does have some limitations where we think that it alone won’t meet all our needs for image interfaces. When we have highly-structured paginated items with associated transcriptions or annotations, we’ll need to implement something a bit more complex. Mirador (example) and Universal Viewer (example) are two example open-source page-viewer tools that are built on top of OpenSeadragon. Both projects depend on “manifests” using the IIIF presentation API to model this additional data.

The Hydra Page Turner Interest Group recently produced a summary report that compares these page-viewer tools and features, and highlights strategies for creating the multi-image IIIF manifests they rely upon. Several Hydra partners are already off and running; at Duke we still have some additional research and development to do in this area.

We’ll be adding many more image collections in the coming months, including migrating all of our existing ones that predated our new platform. Exciting times lie ahead. Stay tuned.

Animated Demo



William Gedney Wants Me To Build A Darkroom

The initial thought I had for this blog post was to describe a slice of my day that revolved around the work of William Gedney.  I was going to spin a tale about being on the hunt for a light meter to take lux (luminance) readings used to help calibrate the capture environment of one of our scanners.  On my search for the light meter I bumped into the new exhibit of William Gedney’s  handmade books displayed in the Chappell Family Gallery in the Perkins Library.  I had digitized a number of these books a few months ago and enjoyed pretty much every image in the books.  One of the books on display was opened to a particular photograph.  To my surprise, I had just digitized a finished print of the same image that very morning while working on a larger project to digitize all of Gedney’s finished prints, proof prints, contact sheets and other material.  Once the project is complete (a year or so from now) I will have personally seen, handled and digitized over 20,000 of Gedney’s photographs. Whoa!  Would I be able to recognize Gedney images whenever one presented itself just like the book in the gallery?  Maybe.

Once the collection is digitized and published through Duke Digital Collections the whole world will be able to see this amazing body of work.  Instead of boring you with the details of that story I thought I would just leave you with a few images from the collection.  For me, many of Gedney’s photographs have a kinetic energy to them.  It seems as if I can almost feel the air.  My imagination may be working overtime to achieve this and the reality of what was happening when the photograph was taken may be wholly different but the fact is these photographs spin up my imagination and transport me to the moments he has captured.  These photographs inspire me to dust off my enlarger and set up a darkroom.

It may take some time to complete this particular project but there are other William Gedney related projects, materials and events available at Duke.











The Duke-SLP Partnership Continues with the SNCC Digital Gateway

Content production is deep underway here at the SNCC Digital Gateway, a continuation of the collaboration between Duke University, the SNCC Legacy Project, and Movement scholars that created the One Person, One Vote website.  Our project room is piled high with books about the Movement, our walls covered with information about source documents and citation, and our workshop sessions are rich in conversation about who SNCC was, what SNCC did, and what SNCC’s legacy is today.

Over the past few months, the project has been working to lay the digital groundwork for the website.  Before beginning the conversation with design contractors about the vision for the SNCC Digital Gateway, we first had to explore some of the challenges of working with a digital platform ourselves.

Lucky for us, the library has a wealth of knowledge about web development
Lucky for us, the library has a wealth of knowledge about web development on the third floor of Bostock.

Unlike a book, there is no straight-forward beginning, middle, and end to a website, and there are limits on the amount of text that we can put on a page.  So, how do we present this material in a way that keeps the user engaged?  How can we have multiple access points to this content while still keeping it grounded in the larger narrative?  How will the users want to approach this material, and how do we hope to steer them?

Rather than following a linear exploration of this history, the SNCC Digital Gateway emphasizes the layering of ideas, people, and places. It recognizes the importance of chronology for contextual understanding but is not driven by it.  It emphasizes the need to document not only the stories of those involved in the Movement, but also how they organized, the local landscape of where they organized, and the kinds of conversations they were having.  It hopes to tie the narrative of SNCC and other Movement veterans to today’s struggles, exploring history to not only understand the roots of systemic oppression but to provide tools for organizing today.

Why, Brinck, we would love to design a website that works!
Why, Brinck, we would love to design a website that works!

We asked ourselves, how do you start to organize all of this information?  Well, why not pick up an Expo marker and start drawing on the walls (if you’re in The Edge, of course)?  This is, at least, what SNCC Digital Gateway team did this past spring.

Wireframe after wireframe, we began to piece together an information architecture for the site content.  With a projected scope of hundreds of discrete pages, each with written content, embedded primary source documents, and audio/visual material, it was clear that this would have to be carefully planned so that the user wouldn’t get lost or overwhelmed.

We want users to be able to engage with the site differently each time they visit – following thematic threads through SNCC’s history, understanding the political landscape before SNCC came to the scene, delving into defining moments that spurred ideological shifts in the organization, seeing what the complexity of this narrative and these relationships meant to different people.  And we want to do so in a way that even a 5th grader can understand.

Hopefully our site will be a little easier to follow than this affinity model found in _Information Architecture for the World Wide Web_.
Hopefully our site will be a little easier to follow than this affinity model found in _Information Architecture for the World Wide Web_.

Armed with book upon book about site design and navigation, we’ve tried to find a way to break with the typical hierarchical site structure and find one that was more suited to the fluidity of our content’s dimensions.  We settled on having two main entry points into the content: chronological and thematic.  We will continue to produce profiles that are tied to different geographic areas and have a section that explore SNCC’s internal and external network and relationships.  But these will be connected to the thematic/chronological core of the site, so that the user can easily navigate between all different categories and types of content.

Without going into the nitty gritty, we’ve pulled together the skeleton for our site (just in time for Halloween) and have begun to flesh out this conversation with a design contractor.  Not only is it important for us to think about how to tell the story of SNCC, it’s important for us to think about how to present it.

Who Are you and Why are you Here: a Duke Digital Collections Poster

This week, my colleague Will Sexton and I (as well as several other Duke folks) are attending the Digital Library Federation conference in beautiful Vancouver, British Columbia.  While here, we presented a poster on our work to assess scholarly use of digital collections.   Please have a look at our poster below.

DC.DLF-poster.FINAL copy
Click image for a larger version


If you are interested in learning more about our assessment project, check out these previous blog posts:

We will also publish a report based on our survey findings sometime in the next few months – so stay tuned!

Today is the New Future: The Tripod3 Project and our Next-Gen UI for Digital Collections

Yesterday was Back to the Future day, and the Internet had a lot of fun with it. I guess now it falls to each and every one of us, to determine whether or not today begins a new future. It’s certainly true for Duke Digital Collections.

Today we roll out – softly – the first release of Tripod3, the next-generation platform for digital collections. For now, the current version supports a single, new collection, the W. Duke, Sons & Co. Advertising Materials, 1880-1910. We’re excited about both the collection – which Noah Huffman previewed in this blog almost exactly a year ago – and the platform, which represents a major milestone in a project that began nearly a year ago.

The next few months will see a great deal more work on the project. We have new collections scheduled for December and the first quarter of 2016, we’ll gradually migrate the collections from our existing site, and we’ll be developing the features and the look of the new site in an iterative process of feedback, analysis, and implementation. Our current plan is to have nearly all of the content of Duke Digital Collections available in the new platform by the end of March, 2016.

The completion of the Tripod3 project will mean the end of life for the current-generation platform, which we call, to no one’s surprise, Tripod2. However, we have not set an exact timeline for sunsetting Tripod2. During the transitional phase, we will do everything we can to make the architecture of Duke Digital Collections transparent, and our plans clear.

After the jump, I’ll spend the rest of this post going into a little more depth about the project, but want to express my pride and gratitude to an excellent team – you know who you are – who helped us achieve this milestone.

Continue reading Today is the New Future: The Tripod3 Project and our Next-Gen UI for Digital Collections

Using Community-Built, Open-Source Software to Build a New Digital Collections Platform

The Library’s Digital Projects Services department has been working with Digital Repository Services on a software project that will eventually replace our existing Digital Collections platform. There will be future posts announcing the new way of discovering and accessing Duke’s Digital Collections, but I want to use this post to reflect on the tools and practices we’ve been using to build this new application.

There are a few important differences between this not yet released new application and our current system. One is that Digital Collections will be part of the library’s Digital Repository, which includes a much broader range of digital items and collections. The second is that since the repository is being developed using Project Hydra, we’re using a component of the Hydra stack, Project Blacklight, as the discovery and access layer for Digital Collections.


The Blacklight Wiki explains that:

Blacklight is an open source, Ruby on Rails Engine that provides a basic discovery interface for searching an Apache Solr index, and provides search box, facet constraints, stable document urls, etc., all of which is customizable via Rails (templating) mechanisms.

The Blacklight Development Google Group has posts going back to 2009, and the GitHub repository has commits back to 2009 as well. So, the project’s been actively developed and used for a while. The Project Blacklight website maintains a list of different implementations of the software, where you can see the range of interfaces it has been used to develop.

One of the benefits of using a widely adopted open source platform is access to a community of developers who use the same software. I was able to solve many problems just by searching the Blacklight Development Google Group for answers. Blacklight made it easy to get a basic interface up and running quickly and provided a platform to add local customizations. Because the basics were already in place we were able to spend our time on more specialized features and local requirements. For example, specifying which search filters should appear for a collection and what metadata fields should be included in search were as easy as adding a few lines of configuration code to the application.



Even for some of the more specialized features, we’ve relied as much as possible on available add-ons and tools to add features to Blacklight. Because of this we’ve been able to add advanced features to the new application that did not require a large amount of development time. For example, we’re using the Blacklight Range Limit Ruby Gem to add a visual date picker with a histogram for searching the collections by year.

We also used the Blacklight Gallery Ruby Gem to add an option to view search results as a gallery with larger thumbnails.


Both of these features were relatively easy to implement because we were able to make use of plugins shared with the Blacklight community.

Another new (to us) tool we’re using is the IIPImage server for serving images to the application. Because the image server automatically creates and then returns the right size image based on parameters sent in a request, we don’t have to pre-generate thumbnails of various sizes to support different displays in the application. The image server can even crop images. Because the image server stores the images as Pyramid TIFFs, we’re able to provide very smooth and fast in-browser pan and zoom of images, which works similarly to Google maps. To get a better idea of what this means for exploring high resolution images in your browser, you can explore some of the examples on the IIPImage site.

To manage this project we’ve been following Agile project management techniques, which for us meant taking an iterative approach to designing and building features of the application in two week sprints. At the beginning of each sprint we decide what we’re going to work on from a backlog of user stories, and our goal by the end of the two weeks is to have a version of the code that is working and deployed with these features implemented. Each day we have a 15-minute stand-up meeting during which each person reviews what they worked on yesterday, explains what they’re going to work on today, and then notes anything that’s blocking their progress. These quick, daily meetings have helped keep the project moving by increasing communication and helping to focus our work.

We’re still putting some pieces in place, so our new platform for publishing Digital Collections isn’t available yet, but look for it soon along with more information about the project and its first published collection.

Google Analytics and Digitized Cultural Heritage

For centuries, cultural heritage institutions—like libraries and archives—monitored the use of their collections through varying means of counting and recording.  From rare manuscripts used in special collections reading rooms to the copy of Moby Dick checked out at the circulation desk, we like to keep note of who is using what. But what about those digitized special collections that patrons use more and more often?  How do we monitor use of materials when they live on websites and are accessed remotely by computers, tablets, and smartphones?  That’s where web analytics comes into play.

Google Analytics is by far the largest analytics aggregator today, and it is what many cultural heritage institutions turn to for data on digital collections.  We can now rely on pageviews and sessions, and a plethora of other metrics, to inform us how patrons are using materials online.

Recently, I began examining the use of Duke University Archives’ digital collections to see what I could find.  I quickly found that I was lost.  Google Analytics is so overwhelmingly abundant with data, what I’d venture to call a statistical minefield (or ninja warrior obstacle course?), that I found myself in a fog of confusion.  Don’t get me wrong, these data sets can be extremely useful if you know what you’re doing.  It just took me a while to get my bearings and slowly crawl out of the fog.

With that said, if you’re interested in learning more, use every resource available to wrap your head around what Google Analytics offers and how it can help your institution.  Google provides a set of tutorials at Analytics Academy.  Another site, Lynda.com is a great subscription resource that may be accessible through institutional memberships.  Don’t rule out YouTube either.  I also learned a lot of the basics from Molly Bragg, my supervisor, who is on the Digital Library Federation Assessment Interest Group’s (DLF AIG) Analytics subcommittee.  They’ve been working on a white paper to lay out digital library analytics best practices, which they hope will help steer cultural heritage institutions in the right direction.

In my own experience scouring usage data from the Duke Chapel Recordings collection, I found many rather predictable results: most users come from North Carolina, Durham in particular.



But then there were strange statistics that can sometimes be hard to figure out.  Like why is Texas our third highest state for traffic, with 7% of our sessions originating there?


Of Texas’ total sessions, 22% viewed webpages relating to Carlyle Marney’s sermons.  For much of the 1970s, Marney was a visiting professor at Duke’s Divinity School, but this web traffic all originated in Austin, TX.  Doing some internet digging, I found that in the 1940s and 1950s, Marney was a pastor and seminary professor in Austin.  It is understandable why the interest in his sermons comes from a region in Texas that is likely familiar with his pastoral work.

I also found that referrals from our very own Bitstreams blog make up a portion of the traffic to the collection.  That explains some of our spikes in pageviews, which correspond with blog post dates.  This is proof that social media does generate traffic!


Once that disorienting fog has lifted, and you have navigated the statistical minefield, you might just find that analytics can be fun.  Now it doesn’t look so much like a minefield but a gold mine.

Have you found analytics useful at your cultural heritage institution?  We’d love to hear from you!

Hopscotch Design Fest

A few weeks ago, I had the opportunity to attend the Hopscotch Design Festival, a 2-day precursor to the music event of the same name in Raleigh, NC. The Design Fest used a very wide tent in gathering speakers from the world of design — they included urban planners, architects, musicians, and writers, in addition to more typical designer/illustrator/interactive types. While I haven’t been to that many conferences, the ones I’ve attended have usually been heavy on the tech side, typically exemplified by a sea of glowing silver macbook pros. During the opening keynote, so far as I could see, I was the only one with a laptop. This crowd was heavy on the analog side (pens and moleskines). This ethos was reinforced by Austin Kleon’s presentation on essential tools for the analog desk. I wasn’t all that familiar with Kleon, but he was clearly a very skilled presenter and offered some interesting tips on maintaining creativity. I was particularly impressed with his newspaper poetry. Overall I thoroughly enjoyed the conference and will hopefully be able to attend again in the future.

Here are some of the speakers I particularly enjoyed:

JustinJustin LeBlanc

I don’t watch much TV. But one show I really enjoy, thanks to my wife, is Project Runway. My favorite contestant, by far, has been Justin LeBlanc. Not only did he come across as a genuinely wonderful person on the show, his designs were amazing. I especially appreciated how his work incorporated non-traditional materials and technology, like 3D printing. Which is all to say that I was super excited to seem him in person. He talked a lot about his creative process, showed off some projects he’d worked on in grad school [before he hit the big time], and also showed some newer work that he’ll debut on the runway soon. He stressed that his latest work is heavily influenced by living in North Carolina. He’s collaborated with local companies to procure materials, print fabrics, and more. The whole thing felt very positive to me.

SteveSteve Frykholm

While I had never heard of Steve Frykholm before, I was immediately impressed by him. He’s been a designer at the famed Herman Miller company for 45 years. He’s clearly seen a lot of things change in the design industry over that time, so the perspective he shared was really insightful. He told an interesting story of the first Herman Miller catalog that was designed by George Nelson in 1952. The original proposal was for a highly stylized, photo-heavy book printed on nice paper — a sharp contrast to the text-heavy catalogs of the day. The top brass shot it down, saying it would be incredibly expensive to produce, and asked the team to come up with a new and more affordable version. The next iteration kept the same design, but added a bound cover and a $3 price tag. No one had ever charged for a product catalog, so this was a bold step. However, the bosses eventually relented and the catalog went on to be a huge success. The next year their competitors were charging $5 for their catalogs. [As an aside, an original copy of the catalog is available at the UNC Art Library.] His point in sharing this story was that sometimes you need to be the first at something — it’s OK to take bold steps and try something new. It won’t always work out, but sometimes it does. He also shared a bit about his creative process and how design work happens at Herman Miller. Towards the end of his time he talked about a series of posters he designed for the company’s annual Spring Picnic. These posters were recently added to the permanent collection at MoMA. I could have listened to him talk for much longer. He’s truly an inspiring individual.

CheetieCheetie Kumar

I first encountered Cheetie Kumar as the lead guitarist for her band, Birds of Avalon. I just thought she was a great musician. Then I learned she was also a recording engineer/producer, an entrepreneur, a chef and restaurateur, a designer, and generally an awesome person. So, I was excited to attend her talk. She came across to me as very humble, but she was also very inspiring. She talked about how she first settled in Raleigh and how she and her band mates / business partners have been dedicated to making it a better place ever since. She explained that they would be out on the road for months at a time then come back home only for a short time, almost like visiting, and with this fresh perspective they were able to find new and exciting things to love about the city that they probably wouldn’t have otherwise. She also highlighted the design features she came up with in creating the space for her restaurant — wood floors salvaged from a basketball court, an awning made from leftover construction material, a penny-covered floor in the bathroom, and a wall of paintings towards the back of the space. She mentioned multiple times how much hard work friends and others contributed to making it all a success. It’s literally amazing how much she juggles in her day to day life. She also said she doesn’t get a lot of sleep.

GrahamGraham Roberts

I was familiar with Graham Roberts’ work without realizing it. He’s worked on some truly amazing projects at the New York Times, such as Inside the Quartet, Music and Gesture, and Skrillex, Diplo, and Bieber make a hit. During his talk he essentially walked us through the process of working on these projects. There were way more people involved in building these things than I would have guessed. For the Kronos Quartet piece, they captured real-time 3-D data using multiple microsoft connect cameras. He then had to visualize what ended up being a staggering amount of data. The end result is beautiful; abstract, but graceful in capturing the essence of their performance movements. He also talked about what it’s like working at the Times and how he approaches his work from the perspective of a journalist, not just as a designer/animator/3D artist. In short, his work is stunning. And while it’s inspiring, in a way it’s also hard to imagine being able to create something so amazing. But I’m hopeful with the richness and diversity of our collections at DUL that we’ll continue to make our own inspiring work.

Lichens, Bryophytes and Climate Change

As 2015 winds down, the Digital Production Center is wrapping up a four-year collaboration with the Duke Herbarium to digitize their lichen and bryophyte specimens. The project is funded by the National Science Foundation, and the ultimate goal is to digitize over 2 million specimens from more than 60 collections across the nation. Lichens and bryophytes (mosses and their relatives) are important indicators of climate change. After the images from the participating institutions are uploaded to one central portal, called iDigBio, large-scale distribution mapping will be used to identify regions where environmental changes are taking place, allowing scientists to study the patterns and effects of these changes.


The specimens are first transported from the Duke Herbarium to Perkins Library on a scheduled timeline. Then, we photograph the specimen labels using our Phase One overhead camera. Some of the specimens are very bulky, but our camera’s depth of field is broad enough to keep them in focus. To be clear, what the project is utilizing is not photos of the actual plant specimens themselves, but rather images of the typed and hand-written scientific metadata adorning the envelopes which house the specimens. After we photograph them, the images are uploaded to the national database, where they are available for online research, along with other specimen labels uploaded from universities across the United States. Optical character recognition is used to digest and organize the scientific metadata in the images.


Over the past four years, the Digital Production Center has digitized approximately 100,000 lichen and bryophyte specimens. Many are from the Duke Herbarium, but some other institutions have also asked us to digitize some of their specimens, such as UNC-Chapel Hill, SUNY-Binghamton, Towson University and the University of Richmond. The Duke Herbarium is the second-largest herbarium of all U.S. private universities, next to Harvard. It was started in 1921, and it contains more than 800,000 specimens of vascular plants, bryophytes, algae, lichens, and fungi, some of which were collected as far back as the 1800s. Several specimens have unintentionally humorous names, like the following, which wants to be funky, but isn’t fooling anyone. Ok, maybe only I find that funny.


The project has been extensive, but enjoyable, thanks to the leadership of Duke Herbarium Data Manager Blanka Shaw. Dr. Shaw has personally collected bryophytes on many continents, and has brought a wealth of knowledge, energy and good humor to the collaboration with the Digital Production Center. The Duke Herbarium is open for visitors, and citizen scientists are also needed to volunteer for transcription and georeferencing of the extensive metadata collected in the national database.

Notes from the Duke University Libraries Digital Projects Team